[Various locations, mostly Valparaiso, Chile; Callao, and Lima. 1822-1827]. Forty-six autograph letters, signed, or manuscript letters, signed, totaling pp., some with integral address leaf. All docketed at the top right edge of the verso of the last leaf, likely by William Tudor himself. Original mailing folds, light toning, occasional short tears from opened wax seals. Overall very good. In a cloth chemise and half morocco and cloth folding case, spine gilt. Item #WRCAM55911
An important historical archive of letters received by William Tudor, almost all while he was serving as United States Consul to Peru in Lima. The letters, from a breadth of correspondents, reveal the range of political, cultural, military, and legal issues faced by an American diplomat serving in a South America during a politically volatile period, and are especially interesting for detailing American diplomatic actions in South America in the years just after the issuance of the Monroe Doctrine. The letters are particularly notable for demonstrating the views and actions of the United States during the Peruvian independence struggle, and showing the extent of the cooperation between the U.S. and Great Britain less than a decade after the conclusion of the War of 1812. They also paint a picture of the revolutionary actions of Simón Bolívar in Peru, the tight grip on the port of Callao by Spanish stalwart José Ramón Rodil, and the interplay of American, British, Spanish, Chilean, and Peruvian officials in the region. William Tudor (1779-1830) was a leading citizen of Boston, and the son of the first judge advocate of the Continental Army. Tudor was a founder and first editor of the NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, and helped found the Boston Athenaeum. He was the first Boston citizen to refer to the city as "The Athens of America" in an 1819 letter. Tudor was the U.S. Consul to Peru from 1824 to 1827, and Chargé d'Affaires at Rio de Janeiro from 1827 until his death there in 1830. The most prominent correspondent in this archive is Commodore Isaac Hull (1773-1843), represented by twelve letters to William Tudor. The Hull letters are a mixture of seven autograph letters, signed, from Hull and five manuscript letters in a secretarial hand but signed by the Commodore. Hull's letters report on the naval blockade of Peru, American movements around South America, and the struggles of Simón Bolívar's South American independence movement, and also touch on the ultimate defeat of the Spanish in Peru. At the time these letters were written, Hull was commander of the United States Pacific Squadron, and the letters emanate from Hull's flagship, the USS United States, positioned in Callao Bay as part of a joint American-British blockade. Hull had a long and distinguished career in the United States Navy, beginning during the Quasi War with France, battling Barbary pirates, and commanding the USS Constitution during the War of 1812. He went on to serve as commandant of the Washington Navy Yard, and as commander of the Mediterranean Squadron. Letters by Hull are scarce on the market, especially in the quantity, quality, and intimacy of content seen here. In his first letter, on May 28, 1824, Hull writes about meeting British naval figure Martin Guise, who was at this time serving with the Chilean Navy during the Peruvian War of Independence from Spain. Hull mentions the current blockade in his first two letters, writing in the first: "I fear that they will not go all length with me in the blockade; they appear disposed to allow something like a coast blockade." His second letter of June 8 includes more details on the efforts during the blockade, namely that Guise is "doing what he has the authority to do from Bolivar" and Captain Prescott "has in great measure made up his mind to submit to the blockade of Guise even in its present form." Hull's communications increase beginning in August, and he writes to Tudor on August 21 that he must refuse his request to land U.S. Marines in Lima for the protection of American officials, but agrees to send a "sea officer with arms" and as many seamen as necessary "for the protection of American Citizens only" but that they "must be kept within their houses or yards." In his next few letters, Hull reports on the ships Dolphin and Peacock being routed to Valparaiso (to provide strategic defense to American shipping vessels in the region), and asks for more information and communications from Tudor regarding the ships Carington and Nancy condemned by Spanish General José Ramón Rodil. In a September 11 letter, Hull states that Rodil intends to sell the two ships, and that "it may be necessary for me to take measures that will not please his excellency as I consider his conduct is and has been for some time hostile towards us and cannot much longer be submitted to." Hull also invites Tudor to his ship to "spend the day with your friends Capt. and Mrs. Maling" who were onboard Hull's ship the previous night. Hull and Thomas James Maling were fellow commanders of the American and British forces, respectively, during this period around Peru. Maling commanded the British ship the Cambridge, which is referenced in some of the letters here. José Ramón Rodil was commander of the port of Callao for the Spanish government, and one of the last remaining Spanish officials to surrender to Bolívar; he stubbornly refused to officially cede control of Callao until 1826, when he finally gave up and returned to Spain. On October 15, Hull writes to Tudor about the attitudes of the Spanish government "towards our commerce." Hull fears that should the Spanish invoke "the laws of the Indies" against American officials in Peru, then Hull and Tudor "shall be in a bad way." The Laws of the Indies were a series of Spanish laws dealing with the relationship between Spain and her colonies in America; Hull is perhaps worried here that if the Spanish government invokes these laws as a sovereign nation, then the activities of the American government in South America would stand in violation of that sovereignty. Hull's troubles with Rodil continue in November, when he informs Tudor that "the crew of the China had complained to Captain Maling of the bad treatment they had received from General Rodil, stating that they were compelled to work, and that some of them had been severely punished." Hull writes that he plans to demand the release of these sailors and the ship, and if Rodil does not acquiesce, he would "resort to reprisal and let the consequence be what it may." In Hull's next letter, the true nature of the extreme treatment suffered by some Americans under Rodil is described. Hull writes a lengthy and passionate letter decrying the "injustice and cruelty of all the proceedings" which took place during the Spanish seizure of the China. Hull can no longer "remain inactive or insensible to the repeated wrongs of my countrymen." He then relates how some seamen were threatened with swords, muskets, or gallows. Hull thinks that "my government will justify me in any measures which I shall be compelled to take to obtain redress for the insults and wrongs which my countrymen have received, and to prevent a repetition of them" After all, claims Hull, "there is not an American in this country, knowing all things which have taken place, who would not be willing to sacrifice every feeling of interest to have their rights respected...." Hull's last two letters come after the decisive battle at Ayacucho in early December, 1824, which effectively ended the Peruvian War of Independence in favor of Bolívar's forces. On December 18, Hull transmits his original correspondence with Rodil to Tudor, presumably so that Tudor can consolidate communications between American and Spanish officials now that Peru has won the war. Hull's final letter touches on duties owed by American vessels at Ancon; Hull recuses himself from the issue in favor of Tudor, as such issues "should more properly come before you as consul, or the merchants to whom he consigned, and I consider any interference on my part would be improper and that it is a case entirely distinct from my duties." After all, as a naval commander, Hull is not responsible for imposing import and export duties related to commerce in newly-independent ports. Hull closes by writing that the news of Peruvian independence will be "such glorious news to the United States. It will be received with sincere pleasure by our government and every lover of freedom and humanity." Also present here are seven letters from the aforementioned Thomas James Maling (plus one from his wife, Harriet) to William Tudor, all of which were written between August and December, 1824. Captain Thomas Maling was the scion of the Maling pottery family in England. He was commissioned into the Royal Navy in 1791, rising to vice admiral in 1830. During his time in Peru, Maling was captain in charge of the HMS Cambridge, which was stationed in Callao for most of Maling's time there. He married Harriet Darwin, daughter of Erasmus Darwin and niece to Charles, who accompanied him to South America. Sadly, Harriet would die in 1825 in Valparaiso, Chile. The Malings were very friendly with William Tudor, as evidenced in the present correspondence (which includes a friendly partial note from Harriet to Tudor, in which she chides Tudor for not visiting their ship and offers to share with him "a good private and confidential letter"). In his first letter, dated August 18, Captain Maling agrees to take aboard his ship one of Tudor's friends, and hopes "you are all made safe & happy by the party I have sent to guard you all at Lima." In his second letter, on August 24, Maling mentions that "Guise is sending another Blockading Squadron," but that this will be "of insufficient force to stop the trade of Europe and North America." Maling hopes "your Commodore," meaning Hull, agrees with him; blockades were prevalent during this time around Peru and Chile as the various revolutions led by and inspired by Simón Bolívar took root. Maling's letter of September 4 concentrates on battle news in Peru, reading, in part: "Kelly who I believe you know of returned from the Liberator's Army and I believe brings us good news but he is still with Guise....There has been no second battle, but Cantera's army dispersed after the 6th leaving him with only 2,000 men with which he is hastening back to Cusco. It is supposed for the purpose of raising the Indians in favor of the Young Inca they have been keeping in reserve. The Commodore [Hull] has thought this information & what else Kelly may bring of sufficient importance to detain the Dolphin another day...." Three days later, Maling writes Tudor about a recent naval issue that prompted him to write to the commanding officer of the ship "to tell him he will be made responsible in future for the conduct or his officers & men, and I hope we shall hear of no other instance of such impropriety, but it is by no means thought here to be ours." This is followed by a mention of the ship China. Maling invites Tudor to his ship for a visit, and tells him he may have the "opportunity of seeing a naval fight." This letter is likely concerned with the aforementioned troubles with the China, in which American and British sailors were mistreated by Spanish authorities. Maling's October 15 letter is especially interesting, as he mentions yet another blockade-related event: "There is an embargo on all vessels at Quilea & no communication permitted with the shore, a pretty conclusive hint where our friends will go to when they sail from hence, if Guise, who is again sailing close in, ever suffers them to depart in peace." Maling's last two letters date from December, 1824, after Bolívar's victory in Peru. In his December 8 communication, he reports that "England has acknowledged the independence of those parts of America which actually form free states." The implication here is clear, in that England is ready to recognize democratic regimes, and nothing less. In his final letter, Maling writes about the slowness in receiving news from the Peruvian government on naval matters, though he allows for the "intoxication of success" felt by those in Peru, who had just won their independence from Spain. Maling wishes them "so well to their cause that I shall not quarrel with them." Maling's penultimate letter alludes to the recent death of British Consul General Thomas Edward Rowcroft. The present archive includes two letters to Tudor from Rowcroft, who was essentially Tudor's British counterpart in Peru. In his first letter, dated June 19, 1824, Rowcroft writes to Tudor about the "dispositions of the Viceroy on the appointment of Consuls in this Country" and on the importance of maintaining "mutual confidential communications" between himself and Tudor. Towards the end of 1824, on December 2, Rowcroft writes again to Tudor, this time to ask about two English Navy vessels allegedly captured by a ship flying "Spanish Colours" and then recaptured by Tudor's brother-in-law Commodore Stewart. This last letter would have been among Rowcroft's final communications, as he was gunned down a few days later while traveling back from Lima after delivering letters to Thomas Maling. Rowcroft supposedly held a pass that should have taken him safely through both the loyalist-held sections and the Bolivar-held areas of the city. As he presented his pass to authorities loyal to Bolivar at a checkpoint, his coach was met with a hail of bullets as it rolled away. Rowcroft was shot in the hand and the torso and died on December 7; his death is now considered an unfortunate accident, perhaps precipitated by a "death sentence" purposely written on his pass by loyalist officials hoping to get Rowcroft in trouble. If this was indeed their plan, it worked. Other letters to Tudor here include a February 20, 1824 note from John Dorr to Tudor, in which Dorr discusses his ship Esther, which was seized by the revolutionary government in Callao, Peru. Dorr indicates that General Bolívar is willing to "do what is possible to recover that valuable Ship & freight or ample indemnity." On April 18, 1824, French Dr. A.V. Brandin writes to Tudor from Lima, informing him of a shipment of quinine for Commodore Hull and his wife aboard the USS Franklin. Brandin allegedly founded the first medical journal in Peru, and was apparently the first doctor to introduce quinine to South America. In other letters in this archive, American ship captain Samuel C. Erwin writes to Tudor on April 22, 1824 with regard to the seizure of a "case of Linnens" by the new Peruvian government, along with a request to write directly to the governor in Lima for relief and for a "Certificate of American Property for my whole cargo which I have repeatedly applied for without being able to get it." American merchant seaman Thomas R. Gerry (son of Elbridge Gerry) writes to Tudor from Quilca, Peru on August 18, 1824, reporting on various business matters and providing a blistering description of Quilca, which he sums up as a "miserable hole." Gerry also reports on two American prisoners of war taken by the Chilean government, one of whom he currently has on his ship the Tartar, while the other is still held at Arica. The present collection also includes a handful of letters from Michael Hogan, U.S. Consul and Navy Agent at Valparaiso, Chile from 1823 until his death in 1833. Hogan's first communication to Tudor is dated the day after Tudor took over as consul in Peru; Hogan is "anxious" but "hopes for the best" for Tudor in his new position. In June 1824, Hogan sends a short report to Tudor on political maneuverings in Valparaiso, where General Pinto was to be appointed "supremo." One of his letters from July 28, 1824 reports on political struggles within Chile, where a Constitution had just been "amicably" voted down, the Senate dissolved, General Wager appointed director and General Pinto as prime minister until a new Congress was convened in three months. Another letter from Hogan, dated August 9, 1824, includes information on the Chilean government's efforts to sell church property "for the publick good." This was a standard practice in the post-colonial governments in South America, who often converted church artifacts of silver and gold into new coinage. In this same letter, Hogan reports that Chilean officials will soon forbid the importation of flour in favor of the "great landholders" in Chile who plan to produce their own "breadstuffs." Other communications to Tudor involve letters of introduction for new merchant ship captains, an appeal by William Wetmore regarding shipping declarations made to General Rodil in Callao, two short letters from U.S. consul to Peru James Prevost in Callao regarding permissions from the new Peruvian government (Prevost would die in Lima on March 5, 1825), and a handful of letters in Spanish from local officials, one of which dated Feb. 12, 1826 mentions mining in Lima ("metales de plata" and "metales ricos un espia"). There are also two letters written to Tudor before his time in Peru. One, dated July 7, 1822 from Thomas Dawes in Boston, relates to a pamphlet Tudor wrote on Thomas Paine. The other is an October 30, 1822 "Declaration and Protest" from a U.S. schooner called the Dolphin, claiming unlawful seizure and false imprisonment by Peruvian officials in Callao; this document was perhaps inherited by Tudor when he arrived in Lima. There is even an intriguing partial manuscript which seems to be part of a confidential report on English government and their public attitudes towards the United States, mentioning a debate in the House of Commons regarding "peace or war with America." In total, these to William letters shine a rare spotlight on the American intervention in Peru and on the international political and economic machinations in South America during the 1820s. The archive provides a stark picture of American enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine, which President Monroe had just elucidated in his State of the Union Address on December 2, 1823. Spanish actions in Peru in the 1820s were seen as a violation of this new foreign policy stance by the United States, particularly the tenet covering European colonial involvement in the Western Hemisphere. Of course, the Monroe Doctrine also served American economic interests in South America, which certainly motivated events such as the American blockade of Callao, and the dispersal of the Dolphin and the Peacock to other South American ports. An outstanding collection of American diplomatic correspondence from an important moment in South American history.