Impressa en la ciudad Imperial de Augusta [i.e. Trier]: con facultad de la Sacra Magestad del Emperador, 1626. pp. Small folio. Dbd. Contemporary manuscript docketing on p. and contemporary ink underscoring on p.. Some loss, repaired in silk, from chipping at gutter and from worming in several leaves, the latter affecting some text but not exceeding 1 x 1 inch in area. Closed tears in final leaf, repaired with very early paper on verso. Light staining and foxing. Overall very good. Item #WRCAM39190
The original Spanish translation of an important invective against Louis XIII during the first phase of France's involvement in the Thirty Years' War. At the time of this publication in 1626, France had actively begun to support the Protestant side in the conflict, concerned with the political threat of the Hapsburg states that surrounded it on three sides (in Spain and Spanish-controlled Flanders to the south and north and the Holy Roman Empire in Germany to the East). In 1624, Cardinal Richelieu was appointed to the Royal Council of Louis XIII and immediately began to institute a vigorous anti-Hapsburg policy. The following year France joined England in subsidizing the efforts of Christian IV of Denmark to defend Lower Saxony against the Holy Roman Empire, beginning an involvement in the war that would eventually lead to its own military participation against its fellow Catholic powers. The present document is a long and detailed warning to Louis XIII against pursuing a course of actions that would pit France against the rest of the Catholic world. According to the document, itself, the text was first composed in French and subsequently translated into Latin and thence into Castilian Spanish. It immediately occasioned a number of responses and refutations, and its anonymous authorship soon became the subject of a 200-year-long debate. In his exhaustive and authoritative bibliography on the Jesuits, BIBLIOTHÈQUE DE LA COMPAGNIE DE JÉSUS, Augustin de Backer seems to have put the question of authorship to rest, attributing it to the German Jesuit Jacob Keller. Keller (1568-1631) was a German scholar and controversialist, widely regarded as a genius and best known for a counter- Calvinist tract on Tyrannicide and a celebrated defense of the Papacy in a debate with Lutheran theologian Jacob Heilbrunner. Backer lists both the French and Latin versions of the EXHORTATION... and refers to a German translation, but he omits any mention of the present Spanish version. He also describes the document as having been printed in Italy, which may result from confusion regarding the city name of Augusta. While Augusta, Syracuse, was under anti- French Spanish control in 1626 and may thus be a candidate for the printing location, all other signs and context point to Trier ("Augusta Treverorum" in Latin), including the publisher's imprint which calls Augusta an "imperial city" and declares permission for publication from the Holy Roman Emperor. An extremely interesting and rare document, anticipating the violent wars between France and the rest of Catholic Europe of the following decade and offering a view of the French-Hapsburg rivalry from the Austro- German Hapsburg perspective and translated for the Spanish Hapsburg audience. One copy is held at the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana Benjamín Carrión in Quito; OCLC lists one additional copy, at the New York Public Library. Backer, BIBLIOTHÈQUE DE LA COMPAGNIE DE JÉSUS, NOUVELLE ÉDITION PAR CARLOS SOMMERVOGEL (Louvain, 1960), Vol. IV, Cols. 992-3. "Jacob Keller," THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA.